Information arises from Robert Hoberman (private communications). So it is apparently generally member of one’s Jewish dialects out of a great many other cities regarding the area also, also Aqra and you may Rawanduz.
However, within dialect there’s a very unusual change of h in order to h in the 3rd people just one possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’
Azerbaijan (Azer): The words of the Jews off Iranian Azerbaijan, including organizations inside Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you will Yuksekova. Data is out-of Garbell (1965).
Halabja (Hala): The words of your Jews out-of Halabja with the Iran-Iraq edging. This is very around the Jewish dialects of other cities of your own part, together with Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and you can Panjwin. Pointers comes from my notes.
We shall examine these types of dialects for twenty-four phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and you may lexical requirements. After the Hetzron (1976, 98), i’ve picked simply innovations as the standards having class. I have chose a good disproportionate quantity of morphological requirements, and in addition we will let them have unique lbs, once more following the Hetzron, however, almost every other common designs was thought to be well.
Notice plus the more complicated maintenance as well as installation off in Koy Sanjaq advertised by the Hoberman (1985)
Even as we contrast this new dialects regarding NENA we’re going to attempt to determine the brand new the quantity to which the newest dialects display a definite trend which differs from Turoyo and you will Mandaic. At the same time, we’re going to select bundles off isoglosses within this NENA.
(1) Stress is generally penultimate in all the NA dialects, and additionally Turoyo and you can Mandaic however throughout the about three easternmost Jewish languages, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you can Halabja, which usually be concerned the last syllable. Such dialects search, similar to this, like in more (Garbell 1965), to demonstrate an unusually strong dictate away from Kurdish.
(2) Most of the NENA languages has blended h and you may x. For the Hertevin the result is h, and you may every-where else it’s x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and you may dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]a great ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and you may +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)
Each other Turoyo and you may Mandaic maintain separate h and you will x. Certain NENA languages provides reintroduced h while the a credit from Kurdish otherwise Arabic otherwise off Classical Syriac or Hebrew.(5) Yet not, the new handed down words constantly reveals x. Instance, for the Tisqopa you will find lent Arabic terms and conditions, particularly sahabi ‘friend’, having h, however, passed down terms and conditions such as laxma ‘bread’ consistently show x. (6)
(3) All NENA languages except Hertevin and you may Zakho have lost very circumstances out-of handed down. Such, when you look at the Aradhin we discover arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ add up to Syriac arb a and afra. For the Hertevin and in Zakho, inherited are frequently ?: Hertevin so?a good ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?la ‘she heard’ (Meehan and you will Alon 1979, 189). In lot of most other dialects some are maintained because ?, and you can, on rest, is fully gone totally. Some languages have reintroduced borrowed away from Arabic otherwise Kurdish. Such as for example, Halabja has ayza ‘good’.
(4) During the before dialects off Aramaic, as in Tiberian Hebrew, t became [Theta] once a beneficial vowel. This alternation might have been lexicalized inside NENA, with both t otherwise [Theta] spread by way of whole paradigms, if preceded by the a beneficial vowel or not. Eg, inside Aradhin the fresh verb ‘come’ presently has [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, also [Theta]e:los angeles ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). Then, in certain dialects the newest phoneme [Theta] has actually experienced most changes. In some dialects [Theta] have merged back into t, plus someone else it has become s if not l.(7) In a single dialect, Jilu, it has become h and then been deleted except in the beginning of a phrase. The 3 easternmost Jewish dialects display brand new alarming move out of [Theta] to one. The results of these alter can be seen regarding the phrase ‘house’ and this looks in different languages as be:[Theta beneficial]a (Tkhuma), biya Tipps zum hispanischen Dating (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and you may besa (Sanandaj Religious).